Illuminated Aleph Bookmark by Jean-Jacques LEVI

Biblical Genealogy: From Judah to Bustanai

Each entry is supposed to be the son or daughter of the previous entries. Subentries are used for people with multiple wives.

Note: This information matches up with the Yikhus Letter in the possession of the Sans Hassidim (Zans Khassidim). See The ESKELES Genealogy by Zeev ESHKOLOT which goes through R. Bezaelel Ben Yaacov. This information may deviate from the lineage claimed by the descendants of Rashi. The information through Pedayiah match with biblical accounts. From there though the end of this page (R. Yoseph I) appear many names from the periods of the second Temple, Tanaim, Amoraim, Savoraim, and Babylonian Geonim. Although Paul J. JACOBI comments that these may "reflect, though from afar only, some bits of tradition, such as on teacher-pupil (as opposed against father-son) relationship."

  1. Horace Vernet (French, 1789-1863) Judah and Tamar, oil on canvas, Wallace Collection, London. Judah (Yehudah) (King of Goshen) son of the Patriarch Jacob (Ya'akov) (b. 15 Sivan 2195 = 1565 B.C.E., d. 2314/2324 = 1440 B.C.E.) Descendants numbered 74,600 adults at the time of the Exodus. Genesis 29:35.
  2. Parez (Peretz) (b. 2228 after creation Canaan). Children: Hezron (Chatzron) and Hamul (Chamol).
  3. Hezron (Chatzron) (b. 2236 after creation Canaan) married the daughter of Nachit
  4. Ram (b. Egypt) married Miss.
  5. Aminadab ('Aminadav) (b. Egypt). Children: Nachshon, and Elisheba (married Aaron the High Priest, brother of Moses)
  6. Nachshon (b. Egypt), Prince of the tribe of Judah during the Exodus (16 Nisan 2448, 1230 B.C.E.) from Egypt. Jumped into the Red Sea at which point to waters were split. Torah was given to the Jewish people 6 Sivan 2448.
  7. Salmon (Salma) (Shalmon) (nephew of Aaron [Aharon]) married Rachab (the harlot of Jericho). He lived during the period of Judges (Shoftim).
  8. Ruth bows to Boaz, Ruth tripytch center panel (detail),by Thomas Matthew Rooke (1842-1942), Tate Gallery, London. Boaz (Bo'az) (b. 2489 after creation, d. about 2789 after creation) married Ruth (b. Moab) daughter of King 'Eglon of Moab, descendant of Moab (son of Lot, nephew of Abraham). Ruth was the widow of Mahlon son of Abimelech (Avimelekh) and Naomi (Ne'omi) who was also known as Mara. Ruth died during the reign of King Solomon.
  9. Obed ('Oved) (b. around 2789 after creation).
  10. Jesse (Yishay) married Nahash (Natzbath) daughter of 'Edal. Children: Eliab, Abinadab, Chimea, Nethnal, Raddai, Ocem, David, Cerouya, Abigail, Zeruiah
  11. King David King David (b. 2854 after creation, 1048 B.C.E., ruled Israel and Judah from 2883 after creation until his death on Shabbat 2924 after creation, 973 B.C.E.). Shephard. Annointed by Samuel. Played harp for King Saul (Shaul). Defeated Goliath the Philistine. Ruled 7 years 6 months in Hebron [Chevron]. Ruled 33 years in Jerusalem. 10 wives.
  12. The Judgement of Solomon by Gustav Dore King Solomon (Shlomo) (b. 2912 after creation, 1015 B.C.E., ruled Israel and Judah from 2924 after creation, 973 B.C.E., to his death 2964 after creation, 933 B.C.E.). King Solomon had a harem of 1000 secondary-wives, and 7 primary wives listed below. King Solomon built the First Temple in Jerusalem (2928 to 2935 after creation).
  13. King Rehobam (Rekhav'an) (Rehoboam) (b. 976 B.C.E., ruled Judah 933-913 B.C.E.). After the death of his father 2964 after creation, the Kingdom was divided into two parts Israel and Judah (Yehudah).
  14. King Abijah (Aviya, Abijam, Abia) (b. 957 B.C.E., ruled Judah 913-911 B.C.E.). He had 14 wives, 22 sons & 16 daughters. His primary wife was Ana (cousin), daughter of Ahimaaz the Naphalite, and his wife, Basemath, King Solomon’s daughter. It is through her, Ana, the bloodline of the Egyptian pharaohs enters into the veins of the Jewish royal house. The name of King Abijah’s wife, Ana, is not given in the “Masoretic Text”, but is given in the “Septuagint Text” (3 Ki 15:10). [Note: I & II “Samuel” in the “MT” is I & II “Kings” in the “Septuagint Text”; and III & IV “Kings” in the “Septuagint Text” is I & II “Kings” in the “MT”.] King Abijah and Queen Ana had son Asa.
  15. King Asa (b. 955(?) B.C.E., ruled Judah 911-869 B.C.E.) His grandmother, Michaiah (Maachah), is called his “mother” in the “Masoretic Text” (1 Ki 15:9-10), but here the term “mother” is used in a loose sense. This has caused some confusion since the “MT” does not give his mother’s name, however, the “Septuagint Text” corrects this by giving his mother’s name. The confusion was created by the fact that his wife Ana died before her husband’s succession. (Note: Ana daughter of Ahimmaaz son of Aibra son of Shebuel was a descendant of Moses's son Eliezar.) King Asa's grandmother, Michaiah (Maachah), the queen-mother of his father’s reign, was still alive, and, in the absence of Asa’s mother, Ana, filled a vacuum in the royal court. There was no such office of “queen-mother” in the Hebrew monarchy; which is the reason that the mothers of the “northern kings” are seldom mentioned but in passing, whereas, the mothers of the “southern kings” are nearly always given by name. He married Azuba, daughter of Shilhi, one of the sons of Jeroboam, the rebel Hebrew king, an Ephraimite, whose father fled south to Judah during the massacre of King Jeroboam’s House by the usurper Baasha where he and his family found refuge. They had a son Jehoshaphat.
  16. King Jehosaphat (Jehoshaphat) (b. 917 B.C.E., ruled Judah 873-848 B.C.E., co-regent with his father 873-869 B.C.E.). Wife's name unknown.
  17. King Jehoram (Joram) (b. 893 B.C.E., ruled Judah 853-841 B.C.E., co-regent with his father 853-848 B.C.E.) As crown-prince, married the Hebrew princess Athalia, the daughter of King Ahab of Israel, and his wife Jezebel of Tyre. His marriage was arranged between his father, the King of Judah, and her father, the King of Israel, perhaps in hope of the reunion of all the Hebrew tribes under one crown. Jezebel reigned (after her son's death) from 841-835 B.C.E.). Jehoram and Athalia had two children: Jehoahaz [who changed his name to Ahaziah on his accession], the crown-prince, and Jehosheba, the wife of Jehoiada I, High-Priest
  18. King Akhazya (Ahaziah) (b. 885 B.C.E., ruled Judah 841 B.C.E.) married Zibiah from Beersheba. They had several sons the youngest of whom was Jehoash (Joash).
  19. King Yoash (Joash, Jehoash) (b. 878 B.C.E., ruled Judah 837-798 B.C.E. after Queen Athaliah) survivor of the massacre of the royal house, married Jehoadda, his cousin, daughter of the High-Priest Jehoiada and (his aunt) Jehosheba, a princess “of the blood [royal]”. They had a son: Amaziah, the future king
  20. King Amatsya (Amaziah) (b. 840 B.C.E., ruled Judah 796-767 B.C.E., regent from 801, captured, released and restored 792). Married (Jerusalem) Princess Jecholiah daughter of Ahab (King of Israel)
  21. King Azariah (Uzziah, Uziya) (b. 811 B.C.E., ruled Judah 790-750 B.C.E.) married Jerushah daughter of High-Priest Zadok II.
  22. King Yotam (Jotham) (b. 759 B.C.E., d. abt. 632(?) B.C.E., ruled Judah 750-735 B.C.E.)
  23. King Akhaz (Ahaz) (lit. he has grasped) (b. 742 B.C.E., ruled Judah 735-715 B.C.E.) He married Abijah, daughter and heiress of King Zechariah of Israel [House of Jehu], in another attempt to reunite the two kingdoms. The betrothal was made while his father, then, the crown-prince, Jotham, who at the time was regent for his retired father King Uzziah of Judah with the, then, King Jeroboam II of Israel, for the marriage of Judah’s son to Israel’s grand-daughter, but the pact fell apart on the murder of King Zechariah of Israel and the following series of usurpers in the “northern kingdom”. Ahaz and Abijah, had three sons: infant un-named son, his eldest, sacrifice in Moloch-worship (2 Ki 16:3), Maaseiah, the crown-prince, who was captured during war-time by their neighbors, and was murdered along with other hostages (2 Chr 28:7), and Hezekiah, the future king
  24. King Khizkiya I (Hezekiah) (b. 726 B.C.E., ruled Judah 715-695 B.C.E.). His mother saved him from death when he was a child by covering him with the fire proof blood of the Salamander. He was thus able to survive an idolatrous fire ritual. Hezekiah was an outstanding religious monarch who purged the Israelite religion of heathen accretions and destroyed the brazen serpent which had been turned into an object of idolatry. He re-opened the Temple. Gained for a time some independence from Assyria. When Hezekiah fell mortally ill he was visited by the prophet Isaiah who reprimanded him for not marrying and having children. Hezekiah repented, recovered from his illness, and married Hephzibah daughter of Isaiah. Children: Bilhah (married to a foreign price), and Manasseh, the crown prince.
  25. King Menasseh (Menashe, Menasses) (b. 697 B.C.E., ruled Judah 695-642 B.C.E.) married Meshullemeth daughter of Haruz (Hanuz) of Jobtbb. Wicked kind. Introduced idolatry into Israelite religion and merilessly shed innocent blood (II Kings 21). He accused the prophet Isaiah (his maternal grandfather) of teaching heresy and had him killed while he was hiding in a tree.
  26. King Amon Assur (Amon Konge) (b. 642 B.C.E., ruled Judah 642-640 B.C.E.). Wicked king. Married Jedidah daughter Adaiah/Boscath (priestly family). Two sons: Josiah, the crown prince, and Kareah, father of Johanan, [identified with “Ion, son of Kari” in ancient Irish annals]
  27. King Yoshiya (Josiah, Josias) (b. 640(?) B.C.E., ruled Judah 640-609 B.C.E.). Ascended the throne when only 8 years old. Josiah was undertook a major reform of the Temple ritual, when a book of the Torah was found during renovations (II Kings 22). The book was the only remaining copy of the Torah, the other having been destroyed by his father. Defeated and slain by the Egyptians at Megiddo. His fate is lamented in the book of Lamentations.
  28. King Yehoakhas (Jehoiakim) (b. 609 B.C.E., ruled Judah 609-597 B.C.E., after 3 month rule of brother Jehoahaz) married Neshushta daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. Jehoiakim was appointed king by Pharaoh Neco as Judah became a vassal-state. Son: Joconiah (Jechonias) or Coniah for short, took the name Jehoiakin on his accession.
  29. King Jeconiah (Yehoakhin, Jechoniah) called "the captive" (b. 598 B.C.E., ruled Judah 3 months 597 B.C.E., d. 561 B.C.E.) married Tamar, his cousin, her second marriage, the daughter of the late crown-prince, Johanan, his uncle, and begot Zedekiah, the crown-prince. The early death of the crown-prince was the fulfillment of “Coniah’s Curse”, placed on King [Je]Coniah’s off-spring by Jeremiah “The Prophet”.
    The king adopted his step-sons, the sons of his wife, Tamar, by a previous marriage since they too were of the “royal seed”, that is, her first husband was a Davidic prince. They are: Shealtiel (Salathiel), who became the new crown-prince, Malchiram, Pedaiah (Phadaia) [note: some have made him into Shealtiel’s son], Shenazzur (Sin-ab-Usur), Jekamiah (Yekamia), Hoshama (Hochama), Nedabiah, father of Shemphat (S[u]mbat), the ancestor of the Bagratids (Bagratuni) of The Caucasus.
    Note: the ancestry of Tamar’s first husband, Prince Neri, in The “Lucan Text” reads by generation: King David, Nathan, Mattathan, Menon (Menna), Melea, Eliakim, Jonam, Joseph, Judah (Jude), Simeon, LEVI, Matthat (Mattathan), Joram, Eliezer, Jose (Joshua), Er, Elmodam, Cosam, Addi, Melchi, Neri, the father of Shealtiel, the crown-prince. Here, Tamar is a pivotal figure who transfers the title of the throne from the main-line (the Solomonic line), of which she was the heiress, to a secondary-line of the royal house, the Nathanite-line.
    The Babylonians beseiged Jerusalem’s walls in 598/7BC. At some point King Jehoiakin decided to surrunder, and packed his bags, and gathered together the royal family, including the queen-mother, Nehushta, and in an entourage of ministers and servants rode out of met the Babylonian Emperor Nebuchadnezzar, who took him and his entourage captive to Babylon, where they lived in comfortable confinement, occupied Jerusalem, and sat his uncle Zedekiah on the throne, and Judah now became a Babylonian vassal-state.
    Jeconiah who was still regarded by the Jewish Exiles as their king, is numbered the first exilarch
  30. Shealtiel (Tsedakyia, Zedekiah) (ruled Judah 597-586 B.C.E.). He was the last King of Judah. He, and other neighbor-states rebelled against Babylonian vassalage, to which Nebuchadnezzar responded by re-conquering the Middle East. It was at this time that Jerusalem and the First Temple were destroyed by the Babylonians, 587/586BC, and the mass deportation of the Jews to Babylonia. He, by an un-named wife, begot six sons and three daughters, including Chealtiel, Malkriraim, Pedaiah, Chenacar, Yekamia, Hochama, the crown-prince Malchijah (Jer 38:6), and his famous sister, Tea/Tamar-Telphi, who married a foreign-prince, identified with an Irish prince
    The execution of the sons of the ex-king Zedekiah by the Babylonian Emperor Nebuchadnezzar II, and the carrying-away of Zedekiah in chains to Babylon where he languished in prison until his death nine years later, caused several claimants of the royal house to come forward presenting their claims. Nebuchadnezzar II made Prince Gedaliah “Governor” (not “King”) of Judea, which now became a Babylonian province. He could be called the first of the Palestinian nesi’im. [note: Gedaliah, was the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, the son of Azaliah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Elkanah, son of Tabael, son of King Uzziah. Gedaliah was assasinated by Prince Ishmael  the son of Nathaniah, the son of Elishama, the son of Achbor, the son of Michaiah, the son of Azrikam, who descended in the ninth degree from Prince Shamariah  the son of king Rehoboam.] Meanwhile, in Babylon, the ex-king [Je]Coniah was still alive, and it was the hope of the Jewish remnant who escaped the mass deportation of the Jews into the “Babylonian Captivity” that he would in time be restored to the throne.
    On the release and advancement of the Jewish ex-king [Je]Coniah at the imperial Babylonian court, he established a residence in the city’s Jewish quarter. He later moved his residence to Nehardea, a small town on the Euphrates with a large Jewish community, where, since the Temple at Jerusalem had been destroyed, he built the first synagogue, which was called “Shaf ve-Yativ”, which means “the Divine Presence” is remove and settle in this place”, which the author of the “Seder Olam Zuta”, a medieval Jewish chronicle, regarded as the origin of the Babylonian “Exilarchate”, the office of the “exilarch”, who bore the title “resh-galuta” meaning “exiled-king”, who claimed lordship over the Jewish “Diaspora”.
  31. (???) Pedayah (Pedaya, Pedaiah) (lit. G-d has ransomed) Children: Chimei, Zorobabel. http://www.bju.edu/bible/h/6300.html. Note: Zorobabel, is called the son of Shealtiel in every Bible reference except in one text (1 Chr 3:19) where he is called the son of Shealtiel’s brother, Pedaiah, which makes that text suspect. This discrepancy is explained by a scribal error in the parent-manuscript of the “OT” or a missing part in the text due to corruption or deterioration of the original manuscript. There is the conjecture that Shealtiel died without issue and that his widow in a “levirate marriage” with his brother Pedaiah gave birth to Zorobabel, but this explanation is unlikely for Zorobabel is called Shealtiel’s son everywhere, even in “Josephus”. The conjecture that Zorobabel, was the son of Pedaiah, who is made into a son of Shealtiel is unlikely also. Zorobabel was the recognized “royal Davidic heir” of his generation.
  32. Zerubavel (Zerubbabel Konge) (Zorobabel). He, upon permission of the Persian shah (Cyrus), led the first and largest colony of Jewish Exiles back to Palestine, and, was entrusted with the office of “governor” (“pehah”) of Judea, his ancestors’ old kingdom to which he was heir, which was now a Persian province. His family did not accompany him, but remained behind in Babylonia with the majority of the Jewish “Diaspora”. Other Children: Hachouba, Ohel, Berekhia, Hassadia, Youchab-Hesed. http://www.hials.no/~hy/_gen/a/d0/i0007384.htm#i7384.
    [note: the occupants of the exilarchate at Babylon and the patriarchate or principate at Jerusalem, representing separate branches of the Davidic Dynasty, were rivals for the heirship of the old Jewish Davidic royal house, i.e., the “princes” of the “diaspora”, or the lords of the world’s Jews]
    Ezra “The Prophet”, during his reforms (458BC), ruled in favor of the descendants of Zorobabel by his Jewish wife, and said “to be Jewish your mother had to be one”; and, that is why the descent-lines of the sons of Zorobabel’s “foreign wives” were omitted from “Chronicles”, which was written by Ezra’s scribes. Therefore, the descendants of Zorobabel’s Jewish wife are listed first.
  33. Exilarch Meshulam (Mezhulam). 4th exilarch. His line returned with Ezra to Jerusalem in 458BC and were the ancestors of the first dynasty of the Palestinian “Nesi’im”. Had five sons by an unknown wife: (1) Hashubah, (2) Ohel, (3) Exilarch Berechiah, (4) Exilarch Hasadiah, (5) Hushab-Hesed. (???)
  34. Chanania (Khanayia I, Hannaniah)
  35. Brachya (Berkhya, Berachyah)
  36. Yesadia (Chasdaya, Khassidiya, Hasdiah). Sons: Yeshayahu, Hezekiah. The Charlap pedigree and the BERDUGO pedigree both pass through Bustanai descendant of Hezekiah. (See The Book of Destiny: Toledot Charlap and Ancila to Toledot Charlap both by Arthur F. Menton.)
  37. Yeshaya (Yeshayahu)
  38. Ovadaya (Uvdia)
  39. Shakhna (Shecaniah). The site http://www.ics.uci.edu/~dan/genealogy/MILLER/roots/rootsa-2.htm#A4] has this Schania and Shmaya (below) interverted. According to that version we then continue with Chizkiyah, and then Nosan Ukvon, and the R. Huna, before continuing with R. Nakhum below.
  40. Shemaya
  41. Na'arya (Neariah)
  42. Khiskiya II (Hizkiah)
  43. R. Nakhum
  44. R. Nakhum. (Note: My sources including The ESKELES Geneaology has this record as a duplicate of the record above.)
  45. R. Akuv
  46. R. Nakhum
  47. R. Yokhanan (Johanan), Exilarch at Babylon
  48. R. Shafat (Shefat, Shaphat), Exilarch at Babylon
  49. R. Annan (Hanan, Anan), Exilarch at Babylon around 260-275 CE, early in the period of Sassanid rule in Persia. Married ??? daughter of Rav (Abba ben Aivu, or Abba Arikha) founder of the Academy of Sura and cofounder of the Babylonian Talmud. The MILLER Family Tree also descends from R. Anan. Contact: Moishe MILLER moishe at langsam.com.
  50. R. Khuna II (Note: This generation is skipped in Don STONE's genealogy)
  51. R. Natan (Nathan I) (Mar Ukba) Exilarch at Babylon around 275-290 CE. He was very learned in Jewish law and noted for charity.
  52. R. Nekhemya I (Nehemiah). Babylonian exilarch around 290-318 CE. His servants sometimes mistreated the many rabbis living at his court. He was not strict about dietary laws.
  53. R. Okvan (Mar Ukba II or III) (Nathan), b. about 250 Babylon, Babylonian exilarch around 318-337 CE.
  54. R. Abba (Abba Mar), Exilarch at Babylon around 350-370 CE, b. about 280 Babylon. Children: Safra, and Sashandukht (married King Yezdegird).
  55. Rav Safra (Note: This generation is skipped in Don Stone's genealogy)
  56. R. Khuna (Kahana I), Exilarch at Babylon
  57. Rav Sutra I (Mar Zutra I), Exilarch at Babylon, (b. about 340 Babylon, d. about 413 Babylon), carried as a child to Palestine, leaving a cousin to become Exilarch. Became head of the Sanhedrin in Tiberias, which is believed to have been a hereditary title of the next 11 generations. On the Sabbath when the people called on him in homage, he was carried to his house on their shoulders. (Contact Don STONE for more descendants.) Ton VAN SANDWIJK claims descent from Rav Sutra I.
  58. Rav Saada
  59. Rav Guriya. (His ancestors are quite different from the above according to the Charlap/Iacchia genealogies.)
  60. Rav Sutra II
  61. Rabbi Yaacov
  62. Rav Magis. (The Charlap/Iacchia genealogies give Magis as the son of Hanina son of Shemaiah son of Rabbi Yaacov.)
  63. Rabbi Nekhemya II. (The Charlap/Iacchia genealogies give Nehemiah as the son of Misa son of Rav Magis.)
  64. Rav Avidima (should be Dimi? or Abdimi?)
  65. Rav Abai
  66. Rav Pinkhas, a noted grammarian, perhaps the author of The Seder Olam Zutta or Small World Chronicle, recognized by the Palestinians as the heir of David, though the title of Exilarch was borne by his distant cousins in Babylon.
  67. Rav Khazuv (Hazub), last mentioned Davidic prince in the Seder Olam Zutta, son of grammarian Pinhas. Children: Rabbi, David. The Iacchia and Charlap families traces their ancestry through David's son Nathan's son Abraham's son Zakkai's son David's son Hiyya ha Nasi's son Ya'ish's son Yaha, treasurer of King Alfonso of Portugal. (See The Book of Destiny: Toledot Charlap and Ancila to Toledot Charlap both by Arthur F. Menton.)
  68. Rav Rabba (Mar Aba Gaon). (Alternatively according to David HUGHES RDavidH218@aol.com Mar Rav Aba was the son of Sofro Demar Yosef son of Rabba Gaon son of Dodai Gaon son of Nachma son of Ravya.)
  69. Rav Marimar
  70. Rav Shmuel Reish Kalah Hagaon
  71. Mar Yehuda (Judah b. Samuel) (d. 916). Served as Gaon of Pumbedita from 906 to 911. Married Judith daughter of Tzemach (Gaon of Pumpedita, d. 891) son of Paltiel (Gaon of Pumpedita, d. 840) or of Mar Chayim Gaon (see David HUGHES RDavidH218@aol.com.
  72. R. Khanaya II (Hananiah b. Judah) (d. 942). Served as Gaon of Pumbedita from 938 to 943.
  73. Rav Sharira Gaon (Sherira b. Hananiah) (906-1006). Served as Gaon of Pumbedita from 968 to 998 after having served as av bet din. For genealogy, see Iggeret Sheria Ga'on 92 (editted recently in Hebrew and English by Rabbi Nathan David Rabinowich.)
  74. Rav Khai (Hai) Gaon (b. 939, d. 1038 CE). See p. 320 and 1130 of vol. 7 of Encyclopedia Judaica 22 Volume Set . From 986 he was av bet din in the academy of Pumbedita. Hai Gaon may have married Asmouna daughter of Samuel Ha-Kohen. Shortly after being released from prison where he and his father where kept on a false charge, Succeeded his father as Gaon of Pumbedita from 998 to 1038. (Next to last Gaon of Pumbedita.) Samuel b. Hophni ha-COHEN withdrew his claim in Gaonate when Hai married his daughter. Author of Sefer Shevu'ot, Sefer hi-Mikkah ve-ha-Mimkar, and Sefer ha-Shetarot, as well as many selihot and piyyatim. In Hai's eulogy, Samuel Ha-Nagid said that Hai left no child. (!?) Perhaps this simply meant that Hai's son R. Yoseph I had already passed away.
    According to this version of the genealogy, Hai married daughter of Samuel (Gaon of the Sura academy 997-1013). (See Aryeh Lifschuetz, Avoth Atarah le-Banim, Warsaw (1927) p. 163 for claim of descent from R. Hai.)
  75. R. Yoseph I son (???) of Hai Gaon.
    According to David HUGHES RDavidH218 at Aol.com, Yoseph was not the son of Hai Gaon but rather the son of Samuel Ha-Nagid and the brother of Hai Gaon's daughter-in-law. Click here to see the connection between King David and Samuel Ha-Nagid.

Daniel E. LOEB, eMail: publisher@pjvoice.com
I read the Philadelphia Jewish Voice